The basic process of tensile testing relies on a material sample attached to a fixture that applies a tension load until failure. The following five methods are primarily material-specific, and the ASTM methods noted are a basic guide for selection based on material classification.
Properties measured by tensile testing methods:
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Tensile Yield and Elongation
Modulus of Elasticity
TENSILE TESTING OF METALS
ASTM E8 / E8M is one of the most common test methods for determining the tensile properties of metallic materials, with the other being ASTM A370. These tests are performed on a variety of sample types, including cast iron bars, metal wire, specialty metals, tubes, and welded samples. These methods cover the tension testing of metallic materials in any form at room temperature, and measure yield strength, yield point elongation, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area.
Non-Ambient TEMPERATURE TENSILE TESTING
COATING TENSILE / BOND STRENGTH TESTING
POLYMER TENSILE TESTING
ASTM D638 is performed by applying a tensile force to a reinforced or non-reinforced plastic sample specimen and measuring various properties of the specimen under stress. Labs that are climate controlled are preferred testing facilities so that the plastic samples characteristics aren’t subject to variations in ambient temperature or humidity.
COMPOSITE TENSILE TESTING
Tensile strength is a critical property of component design, product development, and failure analysis. Data provided by the tensile test can assist in:
- Determining batch quality
- Measuring manufacturing consistency
- Aiding in the design process
- Reducing material costs
- Ensuring compliance with industry standards